While all of these precedents set the stage for optogenetics as it is currently practiced, the intersecting requirements of robust proof-of-concept in mammalian cells, genetic targeting of specific cell types, and elaboration of the toolkit to include a broad array of options, had not yet been met. Deisseroth, Boyden, and Zhang collaborated with Nagel and Bamberg in 20056 to begin a series of publications that have provided exactly these advances. In later papers, they and others further discovered or invented the wide variety of highly useful variants of light-activated pumps and channels, offering a large array of options for neural control. Further, and as importantly, while the logical need for this new kind of tool was apparent to some in the field, these authors have done a remarkable job of making the power of these tools widely appreciated (including such advances as coining the descriptive name ”optogenetics” itself). This effort included not only many publications reviewing the potential of these tools for a wide variety of applications, these authors also generously shared the new advances they were making immediately and developed a variety of practical viral delivery strategies for realizing the genetic specificity that is central to the method’s efficacy.