Beyond novel pioneering applications, the methodology may indeed provide broadly devisable diagnostic support. Martin Wolf (ETH Zürich) presented a multicenter phase II study on cerebral oxygenation monitoring in preterm infants, proving that NIRS can reach clinically meaningful usage. In adults beyond vascular disease, epilepsy has clearly become another focus of research. Altered hemodynamic responses may allow for better differentiation of seizure types. Focusing on epilepsy, two groups from Montreal (Dang Nguyen and Christophe Grova) have established the potential for long-term monitoring of patients. Especially when combined with EEG and MRI, fNIRS can refine the individualized multimodal search for an epileptic focus. Such dual assessment of the electrophysiological and the vascular response to pathological brain activity may be of utmost relevance in the immature brain. Fabrice Wallois (Amiens, France) convincingly showed how a novel and integrative view on vascular and electrophysiological responses to stimulation and pathological brain activity is mandatory when addressing neurodevelopment in infants and preterm babies. The range of applications in the many fields of developmental psychology is broad. Worldwide groups explore the methodology’s potential in language acquisition and the development of other cognitive domains. Here, exciting new approaches based on dynamic connectivity analysis (Gentaro Taga, Tokyo, Japan) extend the spectrum. Other groups presented data on resting-state connectivity, a now widely adopted approach in the vascular imaging community to assess brain function and integrity of large-scale neuronal networks even without a defined stimulus protocol. This may well help to assess brain function also in populations with limited means to cooperate, such as elderly patients and children.