An overall view of the hardware requirements for LSCI is shown in Fig. 1(a), with dashed lines indicating how each component is integrated into the clinical instrument. A schematic of the adapted microscope (Zeiss OPMI Pentero, Carl Zeiss Meditec Inc., Oberkochen, Germany) is shown in Fig. 1(b), with a corresponding photograph shown in Fig. 1(c). A laser diode (, , Thorlabs Inc., Newton, New Jersey) was incorporated into an add-on laser adapter (MM6 Micromanipulator, Carl Zeiss Meditec Inc.), which was attached to the bottom of the microscope head. The laser beam linearly travels through the adapter until it encounters a curved mirror, which directs the beam toward the cortex as shown in the laser adapter illustration of Fig. 1(a). The steering toggle on the laser adapter controls the angle of the mirror, which allows positioning of the beam on the tissue surface. The laser power was measured to be , which is far below the ANSI standard of for maximum permissible exposure to a visible laser beam.25 A camera (Basler A602f, Basler Vision Technologies, Ahrensburg, Germany) was connected to one of the side viewing ports using a C-mount camera adapter (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Inc.). The camera used in this study had a sensor size of , a pixel size of , and a frame rate of . This camera could be easily switched out for a camera model with a higher resolution or speed in future studies. The imaging optics built into the microscope were used to focus the camera and zoom onto an area of interest on the tissue surface. For this study, the microscope was set for maximum zoom and the camera field of view was , corresponding to demagnification relative to the camera sensor. The microscope’s depth of field for the settings used during image acquisition was measured to be . The hardware modifications to the microscope were attached prior to the start of the surgery and did not interfere with sterile draping or with normal use of the microscope, as shown in Fig. 1(d).